Ethical code


The members of Serbian Physiological Society are obliged to obey the rules of their profession and to apply them in their work in sections, at faculties, institutes, and medical institutions and laboratories according to the regulations of the Statute of Serbian Physiological Society and the rules of this Code regardless to their ideological, political and religious beliefs.

The members of Serbaian Physiological Society are obliged to respect universal human values, especially:
- freedom and independence of scientific work
- equality of people and nations regardless to race, religion and political beleifs
- freedom and personal dignity
- right for personal opinion
- peace and prosperity
- solving of disputes by peaceful agreement
- fight for truth against the injustice of any kind to anyone
- necessity for any persona to be evaluated according to the abilities for the job and judged according to personal work results
Serbian Physiological Society members must additionaly keep to the code of medical profession cited in Hippocrates' oath, according to which, the concern for patients' health, regard for medical secret and absolute respect for human life and real human values should be of the most important relevance.
Making efforts to preserve general human values the members of Serbian Physiological Society are obliged to join their collegues' struggle for the right to work and freedom of thought on the occasions of immediate threat to peaceful life and development of the citizens of Serbia.
The members of Serbian Physiological Society are obliged to inform domestic and foreign public truthfully and in time only on what they know i.e. on what they are competent. Their joint wish is to live in modern, democratic world of peace, labour, prosperity and mutual respect.


Members' behaviour rules are based on the principles of creation, independence at work, information on the scientific contribution and permanent striving after creative work and collaboration by which everybody benefits.

1. The principle of creation is shown in the results of the investigations which represent the increase of sum total of knowledge in scientific and expert field in relation to the previous knowledge.
2. The principle of independence at work refers to the achievements which reperesent the increase of sum total knowledge by individual or collaborative scientific work.
3. The principle of informing on the contribution is realised through oral, written and combined presentations which must include:
- the subject of investigation (precisely separated) and its scope
- recognized investigation methods applied, or clear description of individual method
- the description of the procedure or the procedure itself
- clear description of the obtained result together with critical review
- precise distinction of the personal contribution to the result
- reference to the application and further elaboration of the result, i. e. reference to the possibility of extrapolation
- taking on the scientific responsibility while presenting the results with due regard to other scientists' achievements. The results are to be presented in the same way whether obtained by individual or joint work.


The behaviour rules of the members of Serbian Physiological Society are based on the principles of following the existing knowledge and scientific innovation transfer in our region and farther.
1. The principle of knowledge transfer to students is based on the assumption that the student has previously acquired general knowledge which is the starting point from which the professor transfers the existing human knowledge in the field which is to be the student's occupation after the graduation by means of live word and technical devices. While doing it, the professor is obliged to begin the lectures with previously determined contents of knowledge to be transfered, to point to the method of transferring the knowledge as well as to present the knowledge in thedetermined order. Any other way of lecturing which is not determined by the standards of university education contradicts to this code.
In the case when the professor is not capable of transferring parts of existing knowledge to students in the framework of his lecturing, he/she is obeyed to leave them agreeably to the other one who has already lectured them successfully. Relating to the above mentioned, it is necessary to develop and use the institution of collegial debate on the method of successful knowledge transfer to students and to conduct a poll among students.
The students may conduct the objection to the method of knowledge transfer made by any professor, in which case the teaching and scientific council is obliged to take the objection into account and make appropriate decision.
2. The principle of the knowledge assessment is shown in the obligation of the professor to keep to expert and professional principles while examining the student.
During oral or written examination, the professor is not allowed to humiliate or insult the student's dignity; in no case the student's mark should be elevated or lowered due to personal likeness, kinship, or social status of either the students or their parents or on whatever basis other than impartially esteemed knowledge of the candidate.


The rules of counsellor's behaviour are based on the principles of knowledge transfer and collaboration.

1. The principle of knowledge transfer obliges the counsellor to transfer the acquired knowledge to the collaboror in the field of investigation and development in the form of instructions for further work and the remarks on the results of the followed work. While doing this, the counsellor is morally obliged to pay special attention to extraordinary gifted collaborators and to help their further development.
2. The principle of collaboration presumes that the counsellor should not humiliate the dignity of the collaborator while transferring knowledge and giving instructions for further work. During the process of collaboration, the counsellor improves the way of approaching the problem, precises the position of the problem and determines its scope in relation to the existing knowledge, analyses the partial or complete solution, gives instructioins for the proceeding of the investigation i. e. necessary changes, and points to the ways of presenting of the investigation resultas obtained.
The councellor must not usurp the results of the investigation obtained by the collaborator on his/her suggestion, and is allowed to present the results only by consent of the younger colleague, i.e. the student.


While using the knowledge of predecessors, in wtitten or oral defense of personal scientific contribution, any member of Serbian Physiolcogical Society is obliged to cite the sources ( the papers of other authors) which he/she has used as the proofs if his/her own results. However, this does not refer to the oral communication with the collocutors.
The rules of bahaviour in mutual relationships are based on the collaboration in the scientific project, review of the author's work, the checking of the results of investigation, public appearance, accomplishments of working tasks, objectivity in the promotion to the posts in muitual respect.
1. The principle of the collaboration in the scientific project provides the possibility for any member to participate in some project together with the others. While doing it, a scientist may realize his scientific contribution which is based on somebody else's idea. The scientist is allowed to isolate his/her contribution in the following way:
- by precise decription of the idea
- by determining the previous limit of the knowledge
- by precise description of his/her own contribution
2. The principle of review on idividualty of the work comprises the referee's duty to determine the objectives of the work (monography, book, study), present the contents and inpartially separate the scientific contribution of the author. In the cases when the referee is not competent in the scientific and professional field of the subject of the scientific work, i.e. the latest achievements in the particular field, he/she is obliged to give up the review.
The author may ask to expand the number of referees as well as to submit his objection to the review, in which case the objection is solved in the way determined by the law, the decision is made and presented to the author.
3. The principle of checking the results of investigation is shown in the impartial determination of scientific and professional contribution od certain work of any individual or a group; the members of professional and scientific comissions for checking the work are obliged to refuse any influences which do not belong to impartial judgement.
4. The principle of public speaking of the members of Serbian Physiological Society obliges them to defend the truth in accordance with the given oath " to serve the truth and the truth only" which they bore on the occasion of promotion to scientific title. Expressing the judgement or description which has not been scientifically proved in public, obliges them to point out that they are expressing the assumption according to certain knowledge on the subject.
5. The principle of mutual respect obliges the members of Serbian Physiologogical Society to be aware of individual scientific and professional contribution of each of them on the occasions of establishing their mutual relations. The judgement of individual contribution is based on certain criteria, according to which each individual determines his position and relation to other members.
These criteria for the judgement of professional and scientific contribution are based on the primary opinion on the improvement of the existing scientific and professional achievements, i.e. new discoveries and the scientific thruth in specific profession.


In order to provide the following this Ethical Code Serbian Physiological Society is establishing the Court of Honour for issuing penalties for violation of the rules.
Court of Honour consists of five members of Serbian Physiological Society elected by the Society Assembly. The members are elected for the period of four years.


Violation of the rules of Ethical Code can be manifested as:
- disrespect of human rights
- disrespect of Hippocrate's oath
- adoption of someone else's scientific work as one's own ( plagiarism) or non-citing the source used while giving evidence of personal scientific results ( paper without bibliography).
- humiliation of associates or students
- adoption of the results of associates by the counsellor and arrogant relationship with the younger ones
- disobedience to the principle of mutual relationships (collaboration, reviewing, respect)
- use of departments, scientific institutions and other institutions of special social importance for political or personal purposes
- fabricating of crisis centers and manupulating the people


Considering the seriousness of violation and its effect on ruining the dignity of the members of Serbian Physiological Society as well as the Society itself, the Court of Honour may announce one of the following penalties:
- warning
- final warning
- recommendation for personal withdrawal of membership
- exclusion from Serbian Physiological Society and Yugoslav Physiological Society

Court of Honour may announce these penalties to both active and retired members of Serbian Physiological Society.